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Tropical Leaves

PERMACULTURE

Permaculture idapangidwa ngati mawu mzaka za m'ma 1970 ndi David Holmren ndi Bill Mollison, anthu awiri aku Australia odzipereka kugwiritsa ntchito nthaka mokhazikika.

 

Ngakhale kuti anali oyamba kugwiritsa ntchito mawuwa, malingaliro a permaculture m'lingaliro lamakono akhalapo kuyambira kumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la 20, ndipo zizoloŵezi zomwe zimapanga maziko a permaculture zinayamba zaka zikwi zambiri zapitazo.

Malingaliro a kampani Farmers Pride International  Permaculture njira imayang'ana gawo lililonse la nthaka mokhazikika, kuphatikiza nyama iliyonse ndi zomera zomwe zimakhalapo, ndikuphatikizanso ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu omwe amapangidwa kuti alimbikitse ulimi wokhalitsa. Chilichonse pazakudya chimagawidwa kukhala chomwe chimafunikira komanso chomwe chimathandizira, kenako chinthu chilichonse chimaphatikizidwa pamodzi kuti chikhale chodzithandizira chokha.

Permaculture yagona pazikhalidwe zitatu: kusamalira dziko lapansi, kusamalira anthu ndi gawo loyenera. Amapanga maziko a kamangidwe ka permaculture ndipo amapezekanso m'madera ambiri azikhalidwe. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, permaculture imasuntha kuposa kungokhala ndondomeko yamakina yoyendetsera zikhalidwe zonse zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito popanga machitidwe okhazikika.

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Mfundo za Permaculture:

 
  • Yang'anirani ndikuyanjana - potenga nthawi yocheza ndi chilengedwe titha kupanga mayankho omwe amagwirizana ndi momwe tilili

  • Gwirani ndikusunga mphamvu - popanga machitidwe omwe amasonkhanitsa zinthu zikachuluka, titha kuzigwiritsa ntchito panthawi yamavuto.

  • Pezani zokolola - onetsetsani kuti mukupeza mphotho zothandiza kwambiri monga gawo la ntchito yomwe mukugwira

  • Gwiritsani ntchito kudziletsa ndikuvomera mayankho - tifunika kuletsa ntchito zosayenera kuti titsimikizire kuti machitidwe apitilize kugwira ntchito bwino.

  • Gwiritsirani ntchito ndi kupatsa phindu chuma ndi ntchito zomwe zingangongowonjezedwanso - gwiritsani ntchito bwino za kuchuluka kwa chilengedwe kuti muchepetse khalidwe lathu ladyera komanso kudalira zinthu zosatha

  • Simawononga - poyesa ndikugwiritsa ntchito zinthu zonse zomwe tili nazo, palibe chomwe chimawonongeka.

  • Phatikizani m'malo molekanitsa - poika zinthu zoyenera pamalo oyenera, maubwenzi amakula pakati pa zinthuzo, ndipo amagwirira ntchito limodzi kuthandizana wina ndi mnzake.

  • Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito ndi kusiyanasiyana kwamtengo wapatali - kusiyanasiyana kumachepetsa kusatetezeka ku ziwopsezo zosiyanasiyana ndipo kumagwiritsa ntchito mwayi wapadera wa chilengedwe chomwe chimakhala.

Momwe Mungakhazikitsire Famu ya Permaculture mu Masitepe 9

 

Kukula kwaulimi ndi kukonzekera kwaulimi wonse pogwiritsa ntchito kukula kwanthawi zonse.

Chimodzi mwa zida zabwino kwambiri zopangira mapulani ndi chitukuko m'bokosi lathu lamakono la permaculture ndi  Keyline Scale of Permanence . Wopangidwa ndi wopanga zaulimi waku Australia, PA Yeomans, m'zaka za m'ma 60, sikeloyi imathandizira kuika patsogolo ndi kupanga zisankho pokonzekera.  minda yachonde.  Pali zinthu zisanu ndi zitatu pamlingo wa nyengo, malo ndi madzi pamwamba, ndipo misewu, mitengo, nyumba, mipanda ndi dothi zimakhala pa gawo losinthika kwambiri la sikelo. A Yeomans adagwiritsa ntchito 'kukhazikika kwanthawi yayitali' kukambirana za kuchuluka kwa nthawi pa chinthu chilichonse komanso kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe tiyenera kukulitsa. Mwachitsanzo, misewu imatenga nthawi yayitali ndikuwononga mphamvu zambiri poyikapo kuposa mipanda yamagulu ang'onoang'ono, chifukwa chake mipanda imakhala yocheperako.   

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Kukula kwaulimi ndi kukonzekera kwaulimi wonse pogwiritsa ntchito kukula kwanthawi zonse

Chimodzi mwa zida zabwino kwambiri zopangira mapulani ndi chitukuko m'bokosi lathu lamakono la permaculture ndi  Keyline Scale of Permanence . Wopangidwa ndi wopanga zaulimi waku Australia, PA Yeomans, m'zaka za m'ma 60, sikeloyi imathandizira kuika patsogolo ndi kupanga zisankho pokonzekera.  minda yachonde.  Pali zinthu zisanu ndi zitatu pamlingo wa nyengo, malo ndi madzi pamwamba, ndipo misewu, mitengo, nyumba, mipanda ndi dothi zimakhala pa gawo losinthika kwambiri la sikelo. A Yeomans adagwiritsa ntchito 'kukhazikika kwanthawi yayitali' kukambirana za kuchuluka kwa nthawi pa chinthu chilichonse komanso kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe tiyenera kukulitsa. Mwachitsanzo, misewu imatenga nthawi yayitali ndikuwononga mphamvu zambiri poyikapo kuposa mipanda yamagulu ang'onoang'ono, chifukwa chake mipanda imakhala yocheperako. ​​

Masiku ano, pali mitundu yambiri yosiyanasiyana ya sikelo ya keyline. Mwachitsanzo, a  Agrarian framework  zimene Darren J. Doherty amaphunzitsa zili ndi zosintha zina pamitu ndipo zikusonyeza zinthu zina ziŵiri: mphamvu ndi chuma. David Holmgren ndi Bill Mollison mu  Permaculture One  anawonjezera microclimate, pamene  Chithunzi cha VEG  anaphatikiza mbewu ndi nyama mu sikelo.

Chofunikira ndichakuti izi ndi zigawo zakukula kwaulimi zomwe muyenera kuziganizira. Tiyeni tsopano tiyike mu dongosolo lomveka ndikuyika ena mwa iwo ndi cholinga chokhazikitsa famu yanu.

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1. Yambani ndi Mamapu Abwino ndi Kumvetsetsa Nyengo Yanu:

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Kuwunika kwa geography pafamu yanga.

Chofunikira kwambiri pazaulimi ndi nyengo, ndipo ndichofunikira pagawo lililonse la famu yanu. Kutentha, kutentha, mphepo, kugawa kwapachaka kwa chinyezi ndi mvula - izi ndizo malamulo a masewera, monga Darren Doherty anganene. Geography imakhudza malo omwe famu yanu ili mkati mwa dera, mawonekedwe ndi mawonekedwe a nthaka, pamodzi ndi miyala yomwe ili pansi pake komanso kuyandikira kwanu kumisika yomwe ingakhalepo. Ngati nyengo ikhazikitsa malamulo amasewera, geography ndi bolodi yomwe mumasewera. Zinthu ziwirizi zimapanga malo omwe muyenera kuyika famu yanu. Izi ndizomwe mungapangire - ziwerengeni, sonkhanitsani mbiri yakale, tulutsani zatsopano, onani, lingalirani zamalo am'deralo ndi geology ndikuphunzira momwe zimakhudzira famu yanu. Chofunika koposa, kuti mupeze mamapu abwino owonetsa malo anu - nazi njira:

1) Gwiritsani ntchito  Google Earth  kuti mupeze chithunzi cha katundu wanu - ndikosavuta kupeza zithunzi zapamwamba za katundu wanu pojambula zithunzi.

2) Lembani malire a katundu wanu - pangani mapu a malire pa Google Earth. Penyani izi  kanema  kuti afotokoze za Darren momwe angachitire izi.

3) Pezani mapu kuti muwunike mawonekedwe a nthaka ndikupanga mapulani a malowo. Moyenera, muyenera kukhala ndi mamapu ozungulira a 0.5-1.0m, koma oyambira kugwiritsa ntchito  Google Maps - terrain view .

2. Konzekerani Kupereka Madzi Choyamba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kwenikweni, madzi ndi mvula zimadalira kukula kwa famu yanu. Kukolola, kusunga ndi kugawa madzi kumapanga maziko omwe mudzamangepo, chifukwa mizere yonse yamadzi: zokhotakhota, mabwalo, mabwalo, madamu/mayiwe, ngalande, adzakhala zinthu zapamtunda zokhazikika zomwe zigawo zina za zomangamanga zidzatsata.

Pokonza makina anu amadzi muyenera kuganizira kasungidwe, kukolola ndi kugawa madzi omwe alipo.  

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1) Kusungirako madzi

Musanayambe kukonza zosungiramo madzi muyenera kuganizira za zosowa zanu ndi kulingalira kuchuluka kwa madzi osungidwa omwe mudzafunikire kuti mukhale ndi moyo nokha, mbewu zanu ndi ziweto zilizonse zamtsogolo. Potsatira izi, werengerani malo osungira kuti mudziwe kuchuluka kwa madzi omwe famu yanu imalandira ngati mvula ikugwa kuti muwonetsetse kuti zomwe mukukonzekera zikuyenda bwino.  Njira imodzi yomwe muyenera kukumbukira ndi 1mm ya mvula mu 1m2 ikufanana ndi 1L madzi.

Malo abwino kwambiri osungiramo maiwe ndi akasinja anu ndi okwera kwambiri, chifukwa chake gwiritsani ntchito mamapu anu kuti muwone komwe mungasungire madzi. Kenako mutha kugwiritsa ntchito madziwo kuthirira ngati kuli kofunikira. Mapaipi apulasitiki amapereka madzi bwino kwambiri: potsatira kusungidwa mu thanki yokwezeka yamutu, kenako amasamutsidwa kupita komwe amafunikira mphamvu yokoka nthawi yamvula.

2) Kututa Madzi

Mukamaliza kusunga madzi, muyenera kukulitsa ndikukulitsa njira zotungira madzi. Zitsime zamadzi zimatha kulowa pansi pamadzi; komabe, musanayambe kuya, gwiritsani ntchito mtsinje wamtunda ndi mvula yamvula kuti mudzaze posungira madzi anu.

Mutha kujambula madzi ndi ngalande zotungira madzi zomwe zingapatutse madzi othamanga, kusefukira kwamadzi kapena kupopera madzi m'mayiwe anu, ndi matanki. Miyendo kapena ngalande zomwe zili pamtunda zimatha kusefukiranso madzi m'mayiwe anu. Mukayika, misewu yanuyo imakhala yofunika kwambiri komanso yothandiza kwambiri yotungira madzi.

3) Kuthamanga kwa madzi

Muyenera kuyesetsa pang'onopang'ono, kufalitsa ndi kumiza mvula yomwe mumalandira mofanana kudera lonselo. Izi zitha kutheka pogwiritsa ntchito kulima kwa keyline, njira yapadera yolima yomwe ndi mzere wamadzi wopangira, kapena kugwiritsa ntchito swales. Onse amatenga madzi, omwe kenako amalowa pang'onopang'ono ndikuwonjezera malo.

Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito ulimi wothirira wa mphamvu yokoka kuti mutulutse madzi osungidwa m'mayiwe ndi matanki amadzi ngati kuli kofunikira. Malo abwino kwambiri a mipope yanu yothirira ndi pazitunda chifukwa, mwanjira imeneyi, mutha kukwanitsa kuphimba mapiri. Mthirira wanu ukakhazikitsidwa, zinthu zina monga misewu yafamu, mitengo ndi mipanda zidzatsatira.

3. Kutanthauzira Malo Ofikira

Kenako, muyenera kuyikamo misewu yolowera, mayendedwe ndi njira, zonse zomwe zili zokhazikika pamtunda komanso zofunika kuziganizira poyambira. Kuyika kwa malo ofikira kudzatanthawuza kusuntha kwanu kuzungulira famuyo.

Malo a malo olowera amakhudzidwa ndi nyengo, mawonekedwe a nthaka ndi maukonde operekera madzi omwe mudapanga mu sitepe yapitayi. Pamalo otsetsereka, komwe kuli misewu yokhazikika yafamu ndi yokhazikika. Komabe, mutangofika kumalo otsetsereka, kukhala kwa misewu ya famu kumadalira kwambiri nyengo ndi mawonekedwe a nthaka.

Malo abwino kwambiri a msewu waukulu ndi pamphepete mwa mitsinje, yomwe imagawaniza madzi - msewuwu udzakhala wapamwamba komanso wouma, ndipo, chofunika kwambiri, ndi wosavuta kuusamalira. Malo ena otheka ali m'malire ndi ngalande zamadzi monga ngalande zokhotakhota, ngalande zothirira, ndi madera othirira.

Misewu yaulimi idzasinthanso njira yachilengedwe ya ngalandezi ndipo imagwiranso ntchito ngati madzi olimba. Mufuna kuyika misewu yanu pamzerewu kuti muteteze kukokoloka ndi kuchuluka kwa madzi osefukira.

4. Bwezerani Nyumba Zomwe Zilipo Ndi Kuyambitsa Zatsopano Zatsopano

 
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Tsopano popeza mwathana ndi madzi ndi mwayi ndipo mutha kuyendayenda, mutha kuyambitsa kuyika kwa nyumba ndi nyumba zina. Nthawi zambiri, mudzakhala kale ndi nyumba ndi shedi ndi bwalo, kotero inu choyamba muyenera retrofit ndi kusintha izo mogwirizana ndi zosowa zanu.

Muyenera kuyang'anira nthawi zonse zomwe mukuyamba nazo, ndikubwezeretsanso zomwe mungathe, potsiriza ndikuyambitsa zatsopano mu machitidwe. Mutha kuyamba pang'onopang'ono kuchokera mnyumba mwanu ndikugwira ntchito kunja - kukonzanso nyumbayo kaye, mwina kuyikulitsa ndi greenhouse, kuyambitsa nazale ya mbewu ndikukulitsa….

Poyambitsa zomanga zatsopano, kuyika kwawo kuyenera kutsatira zomwe zidachitika kale pamlingo wa keyline, popeza izi zawonetsa kale malo oyenera kumanga nyumba zokhazikika. Madzi amatsimikiziridwa pokhudzana ndi mawonekedwe a nthaka ndi nyengo, misewu yaulimi imatsogoleredwa ndi malo a madzi, ndi zina zotero. Zonsezi zidzawulula malo oyenera a famu yanu, nyumba kapena zinthu zina.

Poganizira izi, nyumba zanu zisawonetsedwe mopitilira muyeso ndipo ziyenera kukhala ndi mwayi wolumikizana ndi dzuwa komanso chitetezo ku mphepo, makamaka pamalo otsetsereka. Ngati mukumanga mashedi kapena nyumba zina, yesetsani kuziyika pamwamba kuposa nyumbayo kuti mugwiritse ntchito matanki awo amadzi ngati gwero lamadzi lanyumba yanu.

Mbali ina yofunika kuiganizira pa nthawi ino ndiyofunika mphamvu zanu; kubadwa ndi kusungidwa kwa mphamvu imeneyo. Nyumba iliyonse imafunikira mphamvu kuti ikupatseni kutentha, madzi otentha, ndi mphamvu zamagetsi pazida zanu: mwachitsanzo, kuti mukhale ndi moyo wabwino. Mwina mungafunike kumangidwa kapena kuyambitsa zida zopangira mphamvu kapena zokolola kuti mukwaniritse zosowazo.

Permaculture Farm mu Masitepe 9

5.  Gawani Famu Yanu Ndi Mipanda

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Kukula kwa mipanda pafamu yanga.

Mipanda imathanso kuonedwa ngati gawo lachitukuko koma imakhala yocheperako poyerekeza ndi zida zina. Ngakhale amabwera pambuyo pake pamlingo wokhazikika, ngati muli ndi lingaliro komwe akuyenera kupita, ino ndi nthawi yoti muyike mipanda yanu yokhazikika komanso yokhazikika.

Mutha kuganiziranso mipanda yosinthika komanso yolumikizira pambuyo pake, nyama zikangoyambika m'dongosolo: muyenera kukhala osinthika kugwiritsa ntchito mwayi wosiyanasiyana momwe zikuwonekera. Pakalipano, tangoganizirani mipanda yomwe idzakhala gawo lachikhalire la famu yanu, pamodzi ndi malire omwe adzabzalidwe mpaka kalekale, monga mipanda yokhalamo ndi mipanda.

Njira yosavuta yogawanitsa famu yanu ndikugwira ntchito motsatira zida zokhazikika. Zinthu zonsezi zidzawonetsa momveka bwino dongosolo la magawowa. Mipanda yanu yayikulu nthawi zambiri imalumikizidwa kwambiri ndi misewu ndikutsatira njira yake, kutsekera mapaki ndi malo obzala. Magawo amafamu anu amathanso kupereka malangizo othandiza pakugawanitsa malo anu.

6.  Konzani Nthaka Yanu
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Konzani nthaka yanu malinga ndi zomwe mukufuna kulima.

Ngakhale nthaka ndiye chinthu chomaliza pakukula kwachikhalire, chifukwa dothi losauka limatha kusinthidwa mwachangu kukhala nthaka yachonde, ndilofunika kwambiri pachitukuko chilichonse chaulimi.  

Pachifukwa ichi, pokonza famu, muyenera kumanga nthaka yanu mwamsanga momwe mungathere. Cholinga chake ndi kukonza chonde m'nthaka kuti izipereka phindu lalikulu mukabzala mbewu zanu koyamba.

Njira zosavuta zingagwiritsidwe ntchito pomanga dothi ndipo mukhoza kuyamba kukonza nthaka mu gawo la earthworks (infrastructure). Izi zitha kuphatikizirapo kulima molunjika, kubzala zovundikira, kutsekereza, kuwongolera kukokoloka, komanso kuyambitsa katemera wa tizilombo kudzera mu feteleza ndi tiyi wa kompositi.

Ili ndi gawo lofunikira musanabzale chifukwa limathandizira kukula kwa mbewu zanu. Pambuyo pake, msipu ukayamba kudyetsedwa bwino, nthaka yapansi panthaka imatha kusinthidwa kukhala yapamwamba kwambiri ndipo mutha kuwonjezera chonde m'nthaka pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa.

Moyo wadothi umafuna mpweya, madzi ndi mchere, biology yamoyo mkati ndi panthaka komanso kusokonezeka kwapakatikati. Mukapanga zinthu izi moyo wa nthaka udzayankha, ndikuyamba kupanga humus. Kuti mumvetse bwino momwe mungakulitsire dothi, werengani wanga  kalozera wotsimikizika womanga dothi lozama kwambiri potengera chilengedwe .

7.  Bzalani Mitengo ndi Mbewu
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Mitengo imabzalidwa m'mizere yozungulira, motsatira mawonekedwe a nthaka

Tsopano popeza mwakonza dothi lanu ndi madzi ndikuonetsetsa kuti malo opezeka mosavuta, gawo lotsatira ndi kubzala ndi kukhazikitsa njira zazikulu za famuyo - minda yamaluwa, minda ya zipatso, nkhalango, nkhalango, msipu, minda yamisika ndi zina.

Nthawi zambiri, muyenera kuyamba ndi kukhazikitsa zotchingira mphepo kuti muteteze mbewu zanu. Mukakonzekera izi, mutha kuyamba kubzala mitengo, mbewu zamitengo, ndi zomera zapachaka komanso zosatha. Potero, mungafune kuyang'ana pa kukhazikitsa malo odyetserako ziweto ndi zokolola zapachaka musanayambe kubzala mitengo yotengera mitengo. Izi zidzakupatsani gwero la ndalama ndi kubweza mwamsanga pa ndalama zanu mu nthawi ndi ndalama.

Pankhani yobzala mitengo, kawirikawiri, chitsanzocho chiyenera kukhazikitsidwa ndi mawonekedwe a nthaka. Mwachitsanzo, pankhani ya pulani ya keyline, nkhalango za m'mafamu ndi mizere yozungulira yomwe imakonda kutsatira njira zotungira/kugawa madzi, komanso misewu, zomwe zimatsimikiziridwa ndi mawonekedwe a nthaka. Pamawonekedwe amtundu wachinsinsi, yang'anani a Mark Shepard  New Forest Farm  kapena  Versaland ya Grant Schultz.

Mwachidule, kachulukidwe ka mitengo yomwe mukufuna kumatsimikizira kuti ndi njira iti yomwe mungatengere. Nkhalango zazakudya ndizochulukira pomwe ma savanna ndi otseguka ndipo, pa chilichonse mwazinthu izi, mudzafunika njira yosiyana. Ndinafotokozapo kale njira yokhazikitsira nkhalango yazakudya ndipo, ngati mwaphonya, mutha kuwerenga zanga  tsatane-tsatane kalozera apa .

8.  Kuyambitsa Zinyama
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Mwachilengedwe, dothi limapangidwa molumikizana ndi herbivores.

Nyama ndi gawo lofunika kwambiri pazaulimi komanso chilengedwe chosinthika. Ndiwofunika kwambiri pakukhwima kwa dongosolo lililonse losatha chifukwa palibe zachilengedwe zomwe zimatha kukwanitsa zonse popanda nyama. Kukula kwachilengedwe ndikudziwitsa ziweto zanu mutangokhazikitsa mbande zanu. Komabe, nyama zitha kuyambitsidwa nthawi imodzi ndi mbewu zanu, ngakhale izi zitha kukakamiza ndalama zanu.

Poyambira, ganizirani za nkhumba ndi nkhuku. Ndiosavuta kuwasamalira, amasintha mwachangu kuti ndalama zanu ziyende, ndipo ndi omnivores - kukupatsani njira zambiri zodyera. Kumanga mpanda kwakanthawi kumakupatsani mwayi woti muzisuntha mozungulira, kuteteza mitengo yanu ndi mbewu zina, ndipo mutha kuzigwiritsanso ntchito potsata nyama kuti muwonjezere chonde.

Mutha kuyambitsanso nyama zazikuluzikulu pambuyo pake ndipo, ndi njira zabwino zoweta monga msipu womwe mwakonzekera, mutha kuchulukitsa chonde chanu. Ndi ziweto zosamalidwa bwino ndi nthaka yamoyo, mutha kumaliza kuzungulira ndikusintha kwamuyaya dothi lapansi kukhala lapamwamba.

9 .  Kukulitsa Chuma Chaulimi
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Mukangoyambitsanso ntchito yanu ndi nthawi yothana ndi nkhani zachuma ndikukulitsa chidwi chanu mdera lanu.  

Kupanga famu yanu kukhala yokhazikika pazachuma zimatengera luso lanu lopanga nkhani za famu yanu. Muyenera kukhala ndi cholinga chokhazikitsa ubale wanu ndi makasitomala anu. Izi sizinakhalepo zosavuta, mutha kugwiritsa ntchito njira zosavuta komanso zaulere zotsatsa monga zida zapa media media kuti mupange kulumikizana kwanu.

Komabe, kuchita izi ndi chinthu chimodzi, ndikupanga chinthu chomwe wogula akufunadi ndikuchipereka ndi china. Misika ndi yamphamvu kwambiri ndipo imasintha nthawi zonse ndikusintha pakapita nthawi. Komabe, nkhani yabwino ndiyakuti kusanthula msika, komanso mwayi wanu kumisika iyi, ndizongodinanso pang'ono. Kukhazikitsa tsamba la e-commerce monga  Shopify  ndi kugulitsa mwachindunji kwa wogula kumasinthadi njira yogulitsira.

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