top of page
Checking Lettuce Growth

SMART  KULIMA

 

Pamene ikuyesetsa kukopa achinyamata kulowa muulimi, a Farmers Pride International alowa nawo gulu la Climate Smart ndi Smart Farming Generation.

"Kulima mwanzeru" ndi lingaliro lomwe likubwera lomwe limatanthawuza kuyang'anira mafamu pogwiritsa ntchito matekinoloje monga Internet of Things ( IoT ) , robotics, drones ndi Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) kuti awonjezere kuchuluka ndi khalidwe la malonda pamene akukwaniritsa ntchito yaumunthu yofunikira popanga.

Ili ndi lingaliro loyang'anira lomwe limayang'ana pakupereka mafakitale aulimi ndi zomangamanga kuti athe kugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wapamwamba - kuphatikiza ma data akulu, mtambo, ndi intaneti ya zinthu ( IoT ) - pakutsata, kuyang'anira, kukonza ndi kusanthula ntchito.

Ulimi wogwiritsa ntchito bwino nyengo  Kumakhudzanso ulimi womwe umapangitsa kuti ulimi ukhale wopindulitsa komanso wopindulitsa, kuthandiza alimi kuti azitha kuthana ndi mavuto omwe amabwera chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo komanso kuchepetsa mavuto omwe amabwera chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo, mwachitsanzo pochotsa mpweya wa carbon munthaka kapena kuchepetsa kutulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha.

Inc.-Arabia-Hydroponics-1068x591.jpg
TSOGOLO LA ULIMI
agronomy-10-00641-ag-550.webp
Inc.-Arabia-Hydroponics-1068x591.jpg

Smart Farming Technologies

Kodi Smart Farm ndi chiyani?

Kulima kwa Smart ndi lingaliro lomwe likutulukapo lomwe limatanthawuza kuyang'anira mafamu pogwiritsa ntchito Information and Communication Technologies kuti achulukitse kuchuluka ndi mtundu wazinthu ndikukwaniritsa ntchito yofunikira ya anthu.

Zina mwa matekinoloje omwe alipo kwa alimi amasiku ano ndi awa:

  • Zomverera: nthaka, madzi, kuwala, chinyezi, kutentha kutentha

  • Mapulogalamu: mapulogalamu apadera omwe amayang'ana mitundu inayake ya famu kapena kugwiritsa ntchito agnostic  Mapulatifomu a IoT

  • Kulumikizana:  ma cell ,  LoRa , etc.

  • Malo: GPS, Satellite, etc.

  • Ma robotiki: Mathirakitala odziyimira pawokha, malo opangira zinthu, etc.

  • Data Analytics: mayankho a standalone analytics, mapaipi a data pamayankho akumunsi, ndi zina.

Kodi matekinolojewa akusintha kale bwanji ulimi, ndipo ndikusintha kwatsopano kotani komwe adzabweretse m'tsogolomu?

Autonomous ndi Robotic Labor

Kuchotsa ntchito ya anthu ndikuyika makina ochita kupanga ndi njira yomwe ikukula m'mafakitale angapo, ndipo ulimi ndi chimodzimodzi. Mbali zambiri zaulimi ndizovuta kwambiri, ndipo ntchito zambiri zimakhala ndi ntchito zobwerezabwereza komanso zokhazikika - malo abwino kwambiri opangira ma robotiki ndi makina.

Tikuwona kale maloboti aulimi - kapena AgBots - akuyamba kuwonekera m'mafamu ndikugwira ntchito kuyambira kubzala ndi kuthirira, kukolola ndi kusanja.  Pamapeto pake, zida zanzeru zatsopanozi zipangitsa kuti zikhale zotheka kupanga chakudya chambiri komanso chapamwamba ndi anthu ochepa.

Mathilakitala Opanda Madalaivala

Talakitala ndi mtima wa famu, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zambiri zosiyanasiyana kutengera mtundu wa famuyo komanso makonzedwe a zida zake zothandizira.  Monga  matekinoloje oyendetsa pawokha amapita patsogolo , mathirakitala akuyembekezeka kukhala ena mwa makina oyambilira kuti atembenuzidwe.  

M'magawo oyambilira, kuyesetsa kwa anthu kudzafunikabe kukhazikitsa mamapu akumunda ndi malire, kukonza njira zabwino kwambiri zapamunda pogwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu okonzekera njira, ndikusankha njira zina zogwirira ntchito.  Anthu adzafunikiranso kukonzanso ndi kukonza nthawi zonse.

Kuchepetsa Ntchito, Kuchulukitsa Zokolola ndi Kuchita Bwino

Lingaliro lalikulu lophatikizira ma robotiki odziyimira pawokha muulimi likadali cholinga chochepetsera kudalira anthu ogwira ntchito pamanja, kwinaku akuchulukirachulukira, zokolola komanso mtundu wake.

Mosiyana ndi makolo awo, omwe nthawi yawo nthawi zambiri ankagwira ntchito yolemetsa, alimi amtsogolo adzathera nthawi yawo akuchita ntchito monga kukonza makina, kukonza makina a robot, kusanthula deta ndi kukonzekera ntchito zaulimi.

Monga taonera ndi ma agbots onsewa, kukhala ndi msana wolimba wa masensa ndi IoT yomangidwa muzomangamanga za famuyi ndikofunikira. Chinsinsi cha famu "yanzeru" kwenikweni chimadalira luso la makina onse ndi masensa kuti athe kulankhulana wina ndi mzake komanso ndi mlimi, ngakhale akugwira ntchito okha.

Ndi mlimi uti amene sangafune kuonerera minda yawo ngati mbalame?  Pomwe izi zidafunikira kubwereka helikopita kapena woyendetsa ndege yaying'ono kuti aziwuluka pamalo omwe amajambula zithunzi zapamlengalenga, ma drones okhala ndi makamera tsopano amatha kupanga zithunzi zomwezi pamtengo wochepa chabe.

Kuphatikiza apo, kupita patsogolo kwaukadaulo wamajambula kumatanthauza kuti simukhalanso ndi kuwala kowoneka komanso kujambula.  Makina amakamera amapezeka kuyambira chilichonse kuyambira pazithunzi wamba, mpaka infrared, ultraviolet ngakhalenso kuyerekeza kwa hyperspectral. Ambiri mwa makamerawa amathanso kujambula kanema.  Kusintha kwazithunzi panjira zonse zojambulira izi kwakula, komanso, ndipo mtengo wa "mkulu" mu "kuwongolera kwakukulu" ukupitilira kukwera.

Mitundu yonse ya zithunzizi imathandiza alimi kusonkhanitsa zambiri zatsatanetsatane kuposa kale, kukulitsa luso lawo lowunika thanzi la mbewu, kuwunika momwe nthaka ilili komanso kukonza malo obzala kuti akwaniritse bwino chuma ndikugwiritsa ntchito nthaka.  Kutha kuchita kafukufuku wa m'mindayi pafupipafupi kumathandizira kukonza njira zobzala mbeu, ulimi wothirira ndi mapu a malo mu 2D ndi 3D.  Ndi deta yonseyi, alimi akhoza kukulitsa mbali zonse za malo awo ndi kasamalidwe ka mbewu.

Koma si makamera okha ndi luso lojambula lomwe limapangitsa kuti pakhale kuthandizidwa ndi ma drone paulimi - ma drones akugwiritsanso ntchito kubzala ndi kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa.

Famu Yolumikizidwa: Sensor ndi IoT

zatsopano, ma agbots odziyimira pawokha ndi ma drones ndi othandiza, koma chomwe chidzapangitse famu yamtsogolo kukhala "famu yanzeru" ndizomwe zimabweretsa ukadaulo wonsewu: intaneti ya Zinthu.

 
 
 
Werengani zambiri >
0_2znjHhSFCkaF1AmY.png

The IoT-Based Smart Farming Cycle

 

Pakatikati pa IoT ndizomwe mungatenge kuchokera kuzinthu ("T") ndikufalitsa pa intaneti ("I").

 

Kuti mukwaniritse bwino ntchito yaulimi, zida za IoT zomwe zimayikidwa pafamu ziyenera kusonkhanitsa ndikusanthula deta mobwerezabwereza zomwe zimathandiza alimi kuchitapo kanthu mwachangu pazovuta zomwe zikubwera komanso kusintha komwe kulipo. Kulima mwanzeru kumatsata njira iyi:

1. Kuyang'ana

Zomverera zimajambulitsa deta yochokera ku mbewu, ziweto, nthaka, kapena mlengalenga. 

2. Matenda

Miyezo ya sensa imadyetsedwa ku nsanja ya IoT yokhala ndi mitambo yokhala ndi malamulo ofotokozedweratu ndi mitundu - yomwe imatchedwanso "lingaliro labizinesi" -yomwe imatsimikizira mkhalidwe wa chinthu chomwe chawunikiridwa ndikuzindikira zofooka kapena zosowa zilizonse.

3. Zosankha

Pambuyo povumbulutsidwa, wogwiritsa ntchito ndi / kapena makina ophunzirira makina a nsanja ya IoT amazindikira ngati chithandizo chapadera ndi chofunikira ndipo ngati ndi choncho, chomwe.

4. Zochita

Pambuyo powunika ndikuchitapo kanthu, kuzungulira kumabwereza kuyambira pachiyambi.

Mayankho a IoT ku Mavuto aulimi

Ambiri amakhulupirira kuti IoT ikhoza kuwonjezera phindu kumadera onse aulimi, kuyambira kulima mbewu mpaka nkhalango. M'nkhaniyi, tikambirana mbali ziwiri zazikulu zaulimi zomwe IoT ingasinthe:

  1. Ulimi wolondola

  2. Kulima makina/robotization

1. Kulima Molondola

Kulima kolondola, kapena ulimi wolondola, ndi lingaliro la njira zozikidwa pa IoT zomwe zimapangitsa ulimi kukhala wowongolera komanso wolondola. M’mawu osavuta kumva, zomera ndi ng’ombe zimapeza chithandizo choyenera, chotsimikiziridwa ndi makina olondola kwambiri kuposa anthu. Kusiyana kwakukulu ndi njira yachikale ndikuti ulimi wolondola umalola kuti zisankho zichitike pa sikweya mita kapenanso pachomera/chiweto osati m'munda.

Poyesa kusiyanasiyana m'munda, alimi atha kukulitsa mphamvu ya mankhwala ophera tizilombo ndi feteleza, kapena amawagwiritsa ntchito mosasankha.

2. Kuweta Ziweto Molondola

Monga momwe zilili ndi ulimi wolondola, ulimi wanzeru umathandiza alimi kuyang'anira bwino zosoŵa za nyama imodzi ndikusintha kadyedwe koyenera, potero kupewa matenda ndi kukulitsa thanzi la ng'ombe.

Eni mafamu akuluakulu amatha kugwiritsa ntchito ma IoT opanda zingwe kuti aziyang'anira malo, moyo wabwino, komanso thanzi la ng'ombe zawo. Ndi chidziwitsochi, amatha kuzindikira ziweto zomwe zikudwala, kuti zilekanitsidwe ndi ng'ombe kuti zipewe kufalikira kwa matenda.

Automation mu Smart Greenhouses

Ma greenhouses achikhalidwe amawongolera magawo a chilengedwe kudzera mu kulowererapo kwamanja kapena njira yowongolera molingana, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimabweretsa kutayika kwa kupanga, kutayika kwa mphamvu, komanso kuchuluka kwa ntchito.

Ma greenhouses anzeru oyendetsedwa ndi IoT amatha kuyang'anira mwanzeru komanso kuwongolera nyengo, ndikuchotsa kufunikira kochitapo kanthu pamanja. Masensa osiyanasiyana amayikidwa kuti ayeze magawo a chilengedwe malinga ndi zofunikira za mbewuyo. Detayo imasungidwa papulatifomu yokhazikika pamtambo kuti ipitirire kukonzanso ndikuwongolera ndikuwongolera pang'ono pamanja.

Drones zaulimi

Ulimi ndi umodzi mwa njira zazikulu zophatikizira ma drones oyambira pansi komanso apamlengalenga powunika thanzi la mbewu, kuthirira, kuyang'anira mbewu, kupopera mbewu, kubzala, kusanthula nthaka ndi minda ndi magawo ena.

Popeza ma drones amasonkhanitsa zithunzi zowoneka bwino, zotentha komanso zowoneka bwino akamawuluka, zomwe amasonkhanitsa zimapatsa alimi chidziwitso pamiyeso ingapo: zizindikiro za thanzi la mbewu, kuwerengera mbewu ndi kuneneratu zokolola, kuyeza kutalika kwa mbewu, mapu a chivundikiro cha denga, mapu a dziwe la madzi ammunda, malipoti owunika, kuyeza kwa masheya, kuyeza kwa chlorophyll, kuchuluka kwa nayitrogeni mutirigu, mapu a ngalande, kupanga mapu a udzu, ndi zina zotero.

Chofunika kwambiri, ulimi wanzeru wozikidwa pa IoT sumangoyang'ana ntchito zaulimi waukulu; Zitha kuwonjezera phindu pazaulimi zomwe zikubwera monga ulimi wa organic, ulimi wa mabanja, kuphatikiza kuŵeta ng'ombe zinazake ndi/kapena kukulitsa zikhalidwe zina, kusungitsa mitundu ina yake kapena yamtundu wapamwamba ndi zina, ndikupititsa patsogolo ulimi wowonekera bwino kwa ogula, anthu komanso kuzindikira msika. .

Internet of Food, kapena Farm 2020

Ngati tili ndi intaneti ya Zinthu (IoT) ndi  Internet of Medical Things ( IoMT ) , bwanji osakhala ndi chakudya? European Commission ikupanga Internet of Food and  Famu 2020  (IoF2020), gawo la  Utsogoleri Wamafakitale wa Horizon 2020 , umafufuza kudzera mu kafukufuku ndi misonkhano yanthawi zonse kuthekera kwaukadaulo wa IoT pamakampani aku Europe azakudya ndi ulimi.

IoT yalimbikitsa chikhulupiliro chakuti maukonde anzeru a masensa, ma actuators, makamera, maloboti, ma drones, ndi zida zina zolumikizidwa zibweretsa kuwongolera komwe sikunachitikepo komanso kupanga zisankho zodziwikiratu paulimi, ndikupangitsa kuti chilengedwe chikhale chokhazikika muzaulimi. mafakitale.

Chachitatu Green Revolution

Kulima kwa Smart ndi ulimi woyendetsedwa ndi IoT ukutsegulira njira zomwe zitha kutchedwa Third Green Revolution.

IOT.jpg

Climate-Smart Agriculture

M’zaka 20 zikubwerazi, kuwonjezereka kwa zokolola ndi ndalama zochokera ku mbewu zazing’ono, ziweto, usodzi ndi kasamalidwe ka nkhalango zidzakhala zofunika kwambiri pakupeza chakudya chambiri padziko lonse.

 

Ambiri mwa anthu osauka padziko lapansi amadalira ulimi mwachindunji kapena mwanjira ina, ndipo zochitika zasonyeza kuti kukula kwaulimi nthawi zambiri ndiko njira yabwino kwambiri yochepetsera umphawi ndi kuonjezera chitetezo cha chakudya. Kusintha kwanyengo kumachulukitsa zovuta zakukula kofunikira ndikuwongolera njira zaulimi, ndipo zotsatira zake zikumveka kale. Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) ndi njira yothanirana ndi zovuta zolumikizanazi m'njira zonse komanso zogwira mtima. Chidulechi cholinga chake ndi kupereka mwachidule njirayo ndi mbali zake zazikulu, komanso mayankho a mafunso omwe amafunsidwa kawirikawiri.

Ulimi wogwiritsa ntchito bwino nyengo ndi njira yothandizira kutsogolera ntchito zosintha ndikukonzanso njira zaulimi kuti zithandizire bwino chitukuko ndi chitetezo cha chakudya pakusintha kwanyengo. "Agriculture" imatengedwa kuti iwononge mbewu ndi ziweto, ndi usodzi ndi kasamalidwe ka nkhalango. CSA si njira yatsopano yopangira - ndi njira yodziwira kuti ndi njira ziti zopangira ndi mabungwe omwe ali oyenera kuthana ndi zovuta zakusintha kwanyengo m'malo enaake, kusunga ndi kukulitsa luso laulimi kuti lithandizire chitetezo cha chakudya m'malo okhazikika. njira.

Lingaliroli linayambitsidwa koyamba ndi FAO mu 2010 mu pepala lakumbuyo lomwe linakonzedweratu ku Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FAO, "Climate-Smart" Policy Policy, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation. 2010). , potsata zolinga zachitetezo cha chakudya ndi chitukuko cha dziko, kukwaniritsa zolinga zazikulu zitatu (FAO, Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. 2013): • Kuonjezera chitetezo cha chakudya mosalekeza poonjezera zokolola zaulimi ndi ndalama; • Kukhazikitsa mphamvu zolimbana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo.

Kuchulukitsa zokolola zaulimi ndi ndalama zomwe amapeza

 

Pafupifupi 75% ya anthu osauka padziko lonse lapansi amakhala kumidzi ndipo ulimi ndiye njira yopezera ndalama. Zochitika zasonyeza kuti kukula kwa gawo laulimi ndi kothandiza kwambiri kuchepetsa umphawi ndi kuonjezera chitetezo cha chakudya m'mayiko omwe ali ndi chiwerengero chachikulu cha anthu omwe amadalira ulimi (World Bank, World Development Report. 2008). Kuchulukitsa zokolola komanso kuchepetsa ndalama chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito bwino zinthu ndi njira zofunika kwambiri kuti ulimi ukule. “Zotsalira za zokolola” zomwe zikusonyeza kusiyana pakati pa zokolola zomwe alimi amapeza m’mafamu ndi zokolola zomwe alimi amapeza m’mafamu, ndizochuluka kwambiri kwa alimi ang’onoang’ono m’maiko otukuka kumene (FAO,

 

State of Food and Agriculture. 2014). Mofananamo, zokolola za ziweto nthawi zambiri zimakhala zochepa kwambiri kuposa momwe zingakhalire. Kuchepetsa mipata imeneyi popititsa patsogolo ntchito za ulimi ndi kuonjezera mphamvu ya nthaka, madzi, feteleza, chakudya cha ziweto ndi zipangizo zina zaulimi kumapereka phindu lalikulu kwa olima ulimi, kuchepetsa umphawi ndi kuonjezera kupezeka kwa chakudya ndi kupeza. Njira zomwezi nthawi zambiri zimatha kupangitsa kuti mpweya wowonjezera kutentha ukhale wotsika poyerekeza ndi zomwe zidachitika m'mbuyomu.

Kumanga mphamvu zolimbana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo

N'zotheka kuchepetsa ngakhalenso kupewa zotsatira zoipa za kusintha kwa nyengo - koma pamafunika kupanga ndi kukhazikitsa njira zoyenera zosinthira. Poganizira momwe kusintha kwa nyengo kumakhudzira malo, komanso kusiyanasiyana kwa kakhalidwe ka ulimi ndi ulimi, ziweto ndi usodzi, njira zomwe zingathandize kwambiri kuthana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo zidzasiyana ngakhale m'maiko. Njira zingapo zosinthira zomwe zitha kuzindikirika kale zomwe zingapereke poyambira zabwino zopangira njira zosinthira pamasamba enaake. Izi zikuphatikizapo kupititsa patsogolo kulimba kwa chilengedwe cha agro-ecosystem poonjezera ntchito za chilengedwe pogwiritsa ntchito mfundo zaulimi ndi njira zowonetsera malo. Kuchepetsa kuwonekera pachiwopsezo kudzera m'mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zopanga kapena zopeza, ndikumanga njira zoperekera zopangira ndi ntchito zowonjezera zomwe zimathandizira kugwiritsa ntchito moyenera komanso munthawi yake, kuphatikiza mbewu zololera kupsinjika, zoweta, nsomba ndi mitundu ya nkhalango ndi zitsanzo za njira zosinthira zomwe zitha kukulitsa kupirira. .

Kupanga mwayi wochepetsera kutulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha poyerekeza ndi zomwe zikuyembekezeka

 

Ulimi, kuphatikizapo kusintha kwa kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka nthaka, ndiye gwero lalikulu la mpweya wowonjezera kutentha, womwe umapangitsa pafupifupi kotala la mpweya wokwanira wa anthropogenic GHG. Ulimi umathandizira kutulutsa mpweya makamaka kudzera mu kasamalidwe ka mbewu ndi ziweto, komanso kudzera m'magawo ake monga chiwongolero chachikulu pakuwononga nkhalango ndi kuwonongeka kwa peatland. Kutulutsa kopanda mpweya wa CO2 kuchokera kuulimi kukuyembekezeka kukwera chifukwa cha kukula kwaulimi komwe kumayembekezeredwa malinga ndi njira zamabizinesi monga momwe zimakhalira nthawi zonse.

Pali njira zingapo zochepetsera mpweya wotenthetsera m'munda waulimi. Kuchepetsa kuchulukitsitsa kwa mpweya (monga CO2 eq/unit product) kudzera pakukulitsa kokhazikika ndi njira imodzi yofunika kwambiri yochepetsera ulimi (Smith, P. et al. mu Kusintha kwa Nyengo 2014: Kuchepetsa Kusintha kwa Nyengo Ch. 11. IPCC, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2014). Ntchitoyi ikukhudza kukhazikitsa njira zatsopano zomwe zimakulitsa luso la kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka zinthu kuti zokolola zaulimi zikhale zazikulu kuposa kuchuluka kwa mpweya (Smith, P. et al. in Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change Ch. 11). IPCC, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2014).

Njira ina yofunika yochepetsera kutulutsa mpweya ndikuwonjezera mphamvu yaulimi yochotsa mpweya wa carbon. Zomera ndi dothi zimatha kuchotsa CO2 mumlengalenga ndikusunga mu biomass yawo - iyi ndi njira yochotsera mpweya. Kuchulukitsa mitengo muzomera ndi ziweto (mwachitsanzo kudzera mu ulimi wa nkhalango) ndi kuchepetsa kusokonezeka kwa nthaka (monga kuchepetsedwa kwa tillage) ndi njira ziwiri zochotsera kaboni muzaulimi. Komabe, njira iyi yochepetsera mpweya ingakhale yosatha - ngati mitengo yadulidwa kapena nthaka ikulima, CO2 yosungidwa imatulutsidwa. Ngakhale pali zovuta izi, kuchulukitsidwa kwa kaboni kumapangitsa kuti pakhale gwero lalikulu lochepetsera, makamaka chifukwa njira zaulimi zomwe zimabweretsa kulandidwa ndizofunikanso kusintha komanso kukhala ndi chakudya.

climate samrt.png
bottom of page