Kafukufuku wa Agriculture
Akuti chidziŵitso chimene anthu ali nacho chimaŵirikiza kaŵiri m’miyezi yosakwana isanu ndi iwiri. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, pasanathe miyezi isanu ndi iwiri kuchokera pamene munawerenga izi, gulu lathu lidzakhala ndi chidziwitso chowirikiza kawiri cha dziko lozungulira ife monga lero.
Tikukonzekera kukhazikitsa Sayansi ya zaulimi zomwe zimayesetsa kupeza njira zomwe zingawonjezere zokolola za ziweto ndi mbewu, kupititsa patsogolo zokolola za minda, kuchepetsa kutayika chifukwa cha matenda ndi tizilombo, kupanga zida zogwirira ntchito bwino, ndi kuonjezera ubwino wa chakudya chonse.
Ntchito zathu zofufuza zaulimi zimayang'ana njira zowonjezerera phindu la alimi komanso kuteteza chilengedwe. Izi zipangitsa kuti ogula azilipira ndalama zochepa pazakudya zawo ndi zinthu za fiber, zomwe zimawalola kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama zawo pazinthu zina.
The research and development objectives, partnerships, and institutional structure of the FPI-I evolve around challenges confronted by the world's poor and disadvantaged. Today, productivity improvement and natural resource management are the twin pillars of the FPI-I research on food crops, conservation of genetic resources (biodiversity), forestry and agroforestry, livestock management, aquatic resources, soil and water nutrients, water management, and agriculture-related policies, as well as in its endeavours to strengthen scientific capacity in developing countries
The agricultural R&D world is changing, and in ways that will definitely affect future global patterns of poverty, hunger, and other outcomes. The overall picture is one in which the middle-income countries are growing in relative importance as producers of agricultural innovations through public investments in R&D and have consequently better prospects as producers of agricultural products, although the important role of privately performed R&D gives a substantial innovative edge to the higher income countries where most of this R&D takes place.
Public investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) is important for global food security and environmental sustainability. Although public agricultural R&D projects are associated with high economic returns, they are characterized by long time horizons and temporal lags. The inherent lag, between when R&D investment takes place and when it comes to fruition, implies that its stability is critical. Existing studies on the stability of public agricultural R&D expenditure are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa and find evidence of considerable volatility in these expenditures when compared to other developing regions. Read more>>>>
FPI-I invests much of its resources in bringing good results as it implement the RUAIPP , for great results we have borrowed ideas from FAO's Agroecology Principles stated on the diagramdiagram below:
Throughout history and in every part of the world, innovation in agriculture has played crucial roles in economic development by increasing farm productivity, enhancing the incomes of poor farmers and making food ever-more abundant and cheaper for consumers, while reducing the demands placed on natural resource stocks. Nevertheless, governments and markets consistently fail to do enough of the right kinds of R&D (research and development)—at least if we are to believe the evidence on rates of return to research—and technological choices on farms are becoming ever-more constrained. Read More>>>>
WHY A-R& D
In the late 19th century public agricultural research institutions were set up in the advanced industrialized nations of today. These paved the way for technological change and transformation in the agricultural systems of these countries (Ruttan, 1982). In the last 50–100 years, dramatic changes in agricultural productivity and production have taken place, driven in large part by investments in public and private agricultural research (Alston and Pardey, 2014). These increases in agricultural productivity have by and large occurred across the globe, encompassing high-income (Andersen and Song, 2013; Khan et al., 2017; Thirtle et al., 2008) as well as middle- and low-income countries (Adetutu and Ajayi, 2020; Fan et al., 2000; Suphannachart and Warr, 2011), and involving their respective public sector agricultural R&D organizations. Today, nearly all countries in some form or another have national agricultural research institutes (Fuglie, 2018).
Thus, public sector agricultural research and development (R&D) has played an important role in increasing agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) across countries (Fuglie, 2018; Rawat and Akter, 2020). These past patterns of growth in agricultural productivity have had important implications for food security and poverty (Alston et al., 2009a). In current times the role for agricultural R&D has expanded further. From boosting agricultural productivity and improving food security, agricultural R&D is now also viewed as a powerful means to ensure environmental sustainability and tackle climate change (Acevedo et al., 2018). The former through interventions and innovations that can minimize ecological damage while increasing productivity (Swaminathan, 2017); the latter through research that focusses on combatting potential threats and adverse effects arising from a mean rise in temperature, and also by mitigating the effects of global green-house gases resulting from agriculture (Lobell et al., 2013).
According to the 2019 Global Agricultural Productivity Report, in order to sustainably meet the needs of an estimated 10 billion people in 2050, global agricultural productivity would need to increase from the current average annual rate of 1.63% to a rate of 1.73% per annum (Steensland, 2019). Given the limited natural resources and degradation of the resources already in use (Fuglie, 2015), increases in agricultural productivity would need to accrue from intensification, i.e. by raising the yield per hectare. This makes the role of public agricultural R&D in raising agricultural productivity critical. Thus, stagnant or declining levels of public investment in agricultural R&D put future agricultural productivity growth at risk (Fuglie, 2015).
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDING
Funding for agricultural research and development (R&D), both public and private, has decreased over the years. The success of the Green Revolution may have resulted in a complacent attitude among funding agencies. Given the recognition of the need for food and the cost of research and development, most people now view this reduction in funding as a huge mistake. Several agencies, NGOs, and private sector firms are now reversing this trend. Private funding plays an important role in taking the new developments to the farmer. However, many of the breakthroughs in research happen in the public sector. An investment in the public sector is essential to create breakthroughs in helping the world meet the food demands of the future.
FPI TASK ON AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT:
Kafukufuku wa Agriculture
Kafukufuku waulimi akuwoneka ngati mtundu wakale kwambiri wa kafukufuku wolinganizidwa padziko lonse lapansi. Kafukufuku waulimi angatanthauzidwe momveka bwino ngati ntchito iliyonse yofufuza yomwe cholinga chake ndi kupititsa patsogolo zokolola ndi ubwino wa mbewu mwa kusintha kwa majini, kuteteza zomera, ulimi wothirira, njira zosungiramo zinthu, kugwiritsa ntchito makina, kugulitsa bwino, komanso kusamalira bwino chuma.
KAFUFUMU WA ZAUlimi
Uku ndi kusonkhanitsa ndi kusanthula manambala kuti muyese malingaliro, kulosera kapena kupeza njira. Deta yotereyi imatha kuyimiridwa pamatebulo, ma chart, kapena ma graph.
Kufunika kwa kafukufuku wochuluka pa ulimi ndi usodzi sikungagogomezedwe mopambanitsa chifukwa ndi kothandiza kupeza njira za matenda mu mbewu, kuthetsa ziopsezozo, ndikuletsa kuti zisadzachitike m'tsogolomu.
Kupita patsogolo Kudzera mu Kafukufuku
Ponseponse, tsogolo laulimi ndi lowala.
Timalimbikitsa ndalama zambiri mu kafukufuku waulimi, mothandizidwa ndi kafukufuku waulimi ndi kuyesa kopitilira, moyo womwe tikukhala nawo masiku ano ungayembekezere kusintha.
Katemera wa Ziweto - M'mbiri yakale, matenda akhala akuwononga kwambiri mabizinesi opanga ziweto. Kubwera kwa katemera ndi mankhwala kwapangitsa kuti ziweto zikhale ndi thanzi labwino. Katemera wa zinyama, njira yoperekera zinyama ku matenda kudzera mu katemera kapena katemera, yachepetsa matenda. Zinyama zomwe zili m'malo opanda matenda zimatha kukwezedwa pamtengo wotsika kwambiri kwa opanga, ndipo ndalamazo zimaperekedwa kwa ogula.
Artificial insemination - Zinyama zapamwamba ndizopangidwa ndi makolo apamwamba. Kuika ubwamuna m'njira yaubereki ndi njira yopangira. Poyambitsa ubereki wochita kupanga, kusamutsidwa kwa majini kuchokera kwa bambo wamkulu, kapena kholo lachimuna, kwawonjezeka kwambiri. Kupyolera mu njira zamakono zosonkhanitsa umuna, kusungirako, ndi kugawa, pafupifupi wopanga aliyense akhoza kupeza majini abwino kwambiri pamakampani .
Kuwongolera kwachilengedwe - Tizirombo timachepetsa kwambiri zokolola zaulimi. Njira imodzi yothanirana ndi tizirombo ndi kuteteza tizilombo. Njira zina zothanirana ndi tizilombo pogwiritsa ntchito tizilombo toyambitsa matenda zimaphatikizira tizilombo tolusa, mabakiteriya, mafangasi, ndi ma virus. Kuyambitsidwa kwa mavu a parasitic m'malo owonjezera kutentha kuti athe kuwongolera ntchentche zoyera ndi chitsanzo cha kuwongolera kwachilengedwe. Mavu akuluakulu amaikira mazira pa mphutsi za ntchentche zoyera. Mazira akaswa, mphutsi za mavu zimadya mphutsi za ntchentche zoyera. Chitsanzo china ndi kugwiritsa ntchito bakiteriya Bacillus thurengiensis polimbana ndi tizirombo towononga mbewu m'munda ndi masamba.
Kupanga mbewu mwapadera—Akatswiri akugwira ntchito yolima mbewu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka pazamalonda. Zitsanzo zikuphatikizapo mbewu zomwe zili ndi makhalidwe enaake, monga zomanga thupi, mafuta, kapena wowuma. Ma hybrids ena a chimanga apangidwa makamaka kuti apange ethanol. Kuphatikiza apo, ntchito yolima mbewu zopatsa thanzi kwambiri ikuchitika.
Precision technologies— The Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), microcomputers, ndi makina owongolera makina ndi matekinoloje olondola omwe apititsa patsogolo ulimi wabwino.
Ma satellites ozungulira dziko lapansi amalumikizidwa ndi cholandirira pansi m'munda kapena pazida. Dongosololi limapeza mfundo zenizeni pamapu amtundu wa GIS kuti aziwongolera magwiridwe antchito pamakina. Ukadaulowu ndiwothandiza makamaka pakuyika feteleza komanso kupeza zambiri zokolola
Kafukufuku wathu waulimi akufuna kupeza njira zomwe zingachulukitse zokolola za ziweto ndi mbewu, kukonza zokolola m'minda, kuchepetsa kutayika chifukwa cha matenda ndi tizilombo, kupanga zida zogwirira ntchito bwino, ndikuwonjezera chakudya chokwanira. Ochita kafukufuku akufunafuna njira zowonjezerera phindu la alimi komanso kuteteza chilengedwe.
LANDIRANI NAFE, TITHANDIZENI, IBWANI MU NTCHITO ZATHU!